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UPSC Mains Syllabus 2018 IAS Exam (Optional Subject Wise) PDF Download

UPSC Mains Syllabus

Aspirants, preparing for Indian Administrative Services examination which is considered as India’s toughest exam must check latest UPSC Mains Syllabus here. Individuals can download the UPSC Mains Syllabus 2018 PDF by going through direct link, on this web page.

Union Public Service Commission, responsible for appointments as well as examinations for All India services and group A & group B of Central services. Candidates preparing for the Indian Administrative Service must check latest IAS Exam Syllabus.

Download Free Online UPSC IAS Mains Syllabus PDF!!!!

Civil Services Exam is well known as IAS (Indian Administrative Services) examination, is one of the toughest and prestigious examinations throughout the India. Every year enormous numbers of applicants apply for the UPSC Notification.

Desirable applicants can download the UPSC IAS Syllabus Optional Subject Wise either visiting the official website of Union Public Service Commission or directly from this page. The team of has provided all relevant information on this page.

UPSC Civil Services Exam

Candidates who had filled the UPSC Application Form must initiate their exam preparation Exam is soon going to be held on specific locations. Complete details of Indian Administrative Services examination (IAS) Syllabus is available here.

Every year around 5 lakh candidates appear for prelims, out of which only 15000 qualifies for mains. After that 15000 candidates are eligible to participate in the UPSC mains examination and only 1000 candidates known to crack highly dignified civil services exam.

Check Here: IAS Eligibility Criteria

UPSC Mains Syllabus

UPSC Mains Exam Pattern

Qualifying Papers (Non-Ranking)
Paper AOne of the Indian Language to be selected by the candidate from the languages included in the Eight Schedule to the Constitution.300 Marks
Paper B            English13300 Marks
Papers to be Counted for Merit (Ranking)
Paper IEssay250 Marks
Paper IIGeneral Studies I (Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the Worl6d and Society)250 Marks
Paper IIIGeneral Studies II (Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations)250 Marks
Paper IVGeneral Studies III (Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management)250 Marks
Paper VGeneral Studies IV ( Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude)250 Marks
Paper VIOptional Subject- Paper 1250 Marks
Paper VIIOptional Subject- Paper 2250 Marks
For the optional papers in the Main Examination, UPSC has a list of about twenty-six subjects out of which any one subject has to be selected by the candidate.
Subtotal (Written Test)1750 Marks
Personality Test (Interview)275 Marks
Grand Total2025 M

Want to Know? Time Required to Prepare for IAS

UPSC Main Syllabus 2018

Qualifying Papers On Indian Languages And English

Candidates, preparing for UPSC Civil Services Exam 2018 must go through the UPSC Exam Pattern to know the complete details of examination.

The main purpose of the UPSC Entrance Exam is to examine the candidate’s ability and capability or to understand read and understand serious discursive prose, and to express his ideas clearly and correctly, in English and Indian Language concerned.

IAS Exam Pattern of questions is as follows:-

  1. Comprehension of given passages
  2. Precis Writing
  3. Usage and Vocabulary
  4. Short Essay.

Indian Languages:-

  1. Comprehension of given passages.
  2. Precis Writing
  3. Usage and Vocabulary.
  4. Short Essay
  5. Translation from English to the Indian language and vice-versa.

UPSC Paper-I


Candidates Preparing For IAS Exam will be required to write an essay on a specific topic. The choice of subjects will be given.

They will be expected to organize their ideas systematically and to write briefly to the essence of the subject. Credit will be given for effective and accurate expression.

Get Detailed: IAS Syllabus


General Studies- I: Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society.

Indian Heritage and Culture

Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.


  • Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues
  • The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.
  • Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.
  • History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society.


  • Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.
  • Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.
  • Effects of globalization on Indian society
  • Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.

Geography of the World

  • Salient features of world’s physical geography.
  • Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian subcontinent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India)
  • Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location- changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

Must Know: How to Become An IAS Officer


General Studies- II: Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations.

Governance, Constitution, Polity

  • Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.
  • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.
  • Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.
  • Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries
  • Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.
  • Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.2
  • Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.
  • Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.
  • Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies
  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
  • Development processes and the development industry- the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders

Check Also: UPSC Calendar

Social Justice

  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
  • Issues relating to poverty and hunger.
  • Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.
  • Role of civil services in a democracy.

International relations

  • India and its neighborhood- relations.
  • Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests
  • Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.
  • Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

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General Studies-III: Technology, Economic Development, Bio diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management.

Economic Development

  • Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.
  • Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
  • Government Budgeting.
  • Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
  • Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
  • Investment models.


  • Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers
  • Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.
  • Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.
  • Land reforms in India.


  • Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life
  • Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.
  • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

Check Here: UPSC Syllabus of All Exams


Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

Disaster Management

Disaster and disaster management.


  • Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
  • Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
  • Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention
  • Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism
  • Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate

UPSC Paper-V

General Studies- IV: Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude

  • Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
  • Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.
  • Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service , integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker sections.
  • Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.
  • Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.
  • Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.
  • Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.

Get Here: IAS Previous Year Papers


Optional Subject Papers – I & II

List Of Optional Subjects For UPSC Main Examination 

  1. Agriculture
  2. Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science
  3. Anthropology
  4. Botany
  5. Chemistry
  6. Civil Engineering
  7. Commerce and Accountancy
  8. Economics
  9. Electrical Engineering
  10. Geography
  11. Geology
  12. History
  13. Law
  14. Management
  15. Mathematics
  16. Mechanical Engineering
  17. Medical Science
  18. Philosophy
  19. Physics
  20. Political Science and International Relations
  21. Psychology
  22. Public Administration
  23. Sociology
  24. Statistics
  25. Zoology
  26. Literature of any one of the following languages

Download Here >>>>> UPSC Mains Syllabus PDF

Best Preparation Books for UPSC Examination

India’s Ancient PastGet Here
India’s Struggle for IndependenceGet Here
Geography Of IndiaGet Here
Pax Indica: India and the World of the Twenty-first CenturyGet Here
Bharat: Gandhi Ke BaadGet Here
Ethics, Integrity and AptitudeGet Here
India After GandhiGet Here

Check Now: Best UPSC Preparation Books

UPSC Syllabus 2018 Phase-II (Mains Examination)

If you are one of them who had filled IAS Application Form then must check the Optional Subject Wise UPSC IAS Mains Syllabus which is well structured on this web page. Applicants can download the UPSC Mains Syllabus PDF through the above provided official link.

Civil Services Exam Pattern provides the complete guidelines to aspirants. With the help of UPSC IAS Exam Pattern 2018 you get to know about the marking schemes, number of questions, duration etc.

For better preparation of Indian Administrative Services examination, you may also go through Online Test for UPSC and preparation tips of IAS Exam. Candidates willing to know latest information about UPSC Mains Syllabus 2018 must stay tuned with us.

UPSC Mains Examination

  • Candidates who have qualified in the Prelims round will only be called to attend the Mains round.
  • The mains round consists of written exam which is followed by personality test.
  • Mains exam involves written exam and personality test.
  • Aspirants who successfully qualify the mains round will be appointed as civil servants.

Qualifying papers:

  • Paper I – An Indian language selected by the candidates
  • Paper II – English

Check Here: List of Top 10 IAS Coaching Institutes

UPSC Selection Procedure

Assortment of the eligible applicants will be done on the basis of their performance in the selection round. Candidates who successfully qualify the prelims examination are eligible to participate in the mains exams after that they need to clear the Interview round.

The final selection for Indian Administrative Services (IAS) will be done as per their rank in allotment list. Candidates will have to qualify all selection rounds to get appointed for the UPSC Indian Administrative Services Vacancies.

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Final Statement

Applicants can book mark this page by pressing Ctrl + D key for getting latest updates regarding UPSC Civil Services Exam pattern and Syllabus. If you have any query related to above provided information, you can leave your comment in below provided comment box.

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